Optics at the Nanometer Scale: Imaging and Storing with Photonic Near Fields

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Using integrated photonics technologies, the centers will be able to handle greater Terabit-scale data rates of traffic with nanosecond switching speeds, while consuming only half as much power, resulting in a dramatic cost savings. Analog RF Signal Applications: Using the GHz precision signal processing of photonic integrated circuits, radiofrequency RF signals can be manipulated with high fidelity to add or drop multiple channels of radio, spread across an ultra-broadband frequency range. In addition, a photonic integrated circuit can remove background noise from an RF signal with unprecedented precision, which will increase the signal to noise performance and make possible new benchmarks in low power performance.

Taken together, this high precision processing enables us to now pack large amounts of information into ultra-long distance radio communications. Sensors: Photons can also be used to detect and differentiate the optical properties of materials. They can identify chemical or biochemical gases from air pollution, organic produce, and contaminants in the water. They can also be used to detect abnormalities in the blood, such as low glucose levels, and measure biometrics such as the pulse.

Mobile platform sensors are enabling us to more directly engage with practices that better protect the environment, monitor food supply and keep us healthy. This new form of machine vision is having an immediate application in driverless cars to reduce collisions, and in biomedical imaging. Phased arrays can also be used for free-space communications and novel display technologies.

Current versions of LIDAR predominantly rely on moving parts, making them large, slow, low resolution, costly, and prone to mechanical vibration and premature failure. Integrated photonics can realize LIDAR within a footprint the size of a postage stamp, scan without moving parts, and be produced in high volume at low cost. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Branch of physics related to the technical applications of light. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Applied Photonics. Quimby 14 April Photonics and Lasers: An Introduction. BBC News. Retrieved October Optical Engineering. Bibcode : OptEn.. Branches of physics. Theoretical Phenomenology Computational Experimental Applied. Continuum Solid Fluid Acoustics. Electrostatics Magnetostatics Plasma physics Accelerator physics. Quantum electrodynamics Quantum field theory Quantum gravity Quantum information. General Special.

Astroparticle Nuclear Quantum chromodynamics. Atomic physics Molecular physics Optics Photonics Quantum optics. Biophotonics Nanophotonics Microphotonics Photonic computing. Arrayed waveguide grating Diffraction grating holographic grating Monte Carlo method for photon transport Wavelength selective switching Atomic coherence Autocloning dark state photon diffusion. The applications of two-photon and three-photon processes to multiphoton multicolor confocal microscopy, optical data storage and two-photon photodynamic therapy is very exciting directions which are being developed in our laboratory.

Other applications being pursued are two-photon, three photon and four-photon pumped up-conversion lasing, optical power limiting, optical phase conjugation and optical power stabilization. We recently reported even three-photon and four-photon pumped population inversion and subsequent stimulated emissions. Another exciting prospect being developed is two-photon lithography and two-photon holography for three-dimensional optical circuitry and for photonic crystal fabrication. Another are of recent activities is the studies of multiphoton absorption in quantum dots. We have demonstrated efficient two and three photon absorption processes in quantum dots covering a broad spectra range from visible to IR.

In a very broad sense, metaphotonics deals with manipulation of electro-magnetic fields using electric dipole and quadrupole, and magnetic dipole interactions as well as their cross-coupling in nanoengineered meta materials. In traditional approaches to the optics of natural media and structures employed in photonics, electric interactions and electric field control play the dominant role, leading to dipole controlled propagation and light—matter interactions, positive refractive index, electrooptic effects, etc. On the other hand, the combination of electric and magnetic interactions, inherent to metaphotonics, allows for manipulating the value of the refractive index, including near-zero and negative values, as well as its gradient, leading to phenomena such as sub-wavelength resolution, cloaking, slow light, magnetic field switching and optical control of magnetism.

All of this is made possible by physics-guided nanoengineering of appropriate artificial media. Apart from astounding new physical insights, the metaphotonics approach can also produce new breakthrough technologies. Potential applications of metaphotonics range from optical communications to solar energy harvesting, to sensor technology, to biophotonics.

Nonlinear metaphotonics,i. The underlying physical mechanism of many but not all of the above mentioned phenomena is the enhancement of the role of magnetic coupling using either artificial nanoresonators or chiral molecular and nanocomposite media.

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In our program, we are using a chiral approach involving a nanocomposite of a multiscale modeling based chiral polymer nanocomposite containing plasmonic, excitonic and magnetic nanoinclusion. Negative index media NIM produce a large number of novel optical manifestations and thus form a hot topic. All approaches in the past have involved either manipulation of photonic band structure or producing negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability.

We are taking a novel chemical approach of using coupled electric and magnetic resonances in a chiral medium to achieve negative refraction. Our approach uses molecular chirality, amplification of chirality using supramolecular organizations and inclusions of plasmonic and excitonic nanostructures. Another major focus is study of third-order nonlinear optical effects in chiral media. We are studying both two-photon absorption and intensity dependent refractive index.

Our experimental approach is Z-scan. We have developed new methods of photoelastic modulation coupled with Z-scan, to study chirality effects and are building theoretical understand of these processes. With magnetic nanoinclusions in a chiral medium, we have shown enhancement of magnetic interactions to produce modulation and control of magneto-optic properties. This is a new frontier of science which utilizes light for medical diagnostics, optical biosensing, laser tissue engineering, and light activated therapy.

Biophotonics forms a major research thrust of our program. On the fundamental level, our program involves the study of light activated processes at both cellular and tissue levels. Optical imaging using near field microscopy, confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography is used to study structure and dynamics both at cellular and tissue levels. An important aspect of our program is the use of nonlinear optical processes such as second harmonic generation, sum frequency generation, two-photon excitation and coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering CARS.

CARS provide a powerful method for molecular imaging: using a Raman vibration as a specific biomarker. CARS imaging, together with imaging using the nonlinear process of sum frequency generation, are also being used for both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We are developing novel two-photon fluorophores; water dispersible and surface functionalized quantum dots; and up-converting rare-earth containing nanoparticles, as well as CARS probes for multispectral bioimaging. Multimodal optical imaging is being utilized to create a fundamental insight at molecular level on such biological processes as gene expression, cell cycle progression, malignant transformations and cell death.

For instance, CARS and two-photon excited fluorescence TPEF imaging has been recently introduced: our group for monitoring of subcellular distribution of major types of macromolecules proteins, lipids, DNA and RNA throughout the cell cycle and during the propagation of apoptosis. Furthermore, a combination of these imaging techniques with quantitative Raman spectroscopy approach enables for both imaging of macromolecules and nearly simultaneous measurements of their local concentrations in the subcellular sites of interest, such as cytoplasmic organelles and compartments in the cell nucleus.

Al, Ta , defects e. Both a macroscopic and a microscopic theory of the optical response of a monolayer two-dimensional crystal is presented, and the generalization to multilayers and heterostructures is discussed. For monolayer crystals, experiments indicate that the surface electric susceptibility and conductivity describe correctly their optical properties, while models, based on the three-dimensional complex refractive index, fail experimental confirmation.

Surface susceptibility and conductivity better clarify several phenomena such as surface waves, nonlinear response and beam shifts. At the microscopic level, retardation effects influence the local field, giving intrinsically complex Fresnel coefficients even for good insulators. Remarkably, the radiation-reaction electric field connects the microscopic to the macroscopic description. Finally I present a complete theory for bilayer crystals, and I show how experiments confirm that they already require the introduction of a volume susceptibility.

Metamaterial theory provides the ability to engineer a custom designed photonic background, which in combination with topological protection will be robust with respect to fluctuations through the intrinsic non-linearity, fabrication imperfections, and thermal noise. We link our recently established group-theoretical approach for topological Weyl materials with a novel quantum-Maxwell-Bloch simulation platform to design and characterise a topologically protected fully three-dimensional epsilon-and-mu-near-zero phase-locked nano-plasmonic background for photons.

This opens up unique opportunities to achieve optical coherence of quantum emitters at room temperature and to design new lasing states and strong coupling of photon emitters in innovative environments with topological protection against nanoscale structural material disorder. We introduce the concept of a photonic Dirac monopole, appropriate for photonic crystals, metamaterials and 2D materials, by utilizing the Dirac-Maxwell correspondence.

The critical distinction is the nature of magnetic monopole charges, which are integer valued for photons but half-integer for electrons. This inherent difference is directly tied to the spin and ultimately connects to the bosonic or fermionic behavior. While the results in vacuum are intuitively expected, our central result is the application of this topological Dirac-Maxwell correspondence to 2D photonic bosonic materials, as opposed to conventional electronic fermionic materials.

Intriguingly, within dispersive matter, the presence of photonic Dirac monopoles is captured by nonlocal quantum Hall conductivity. Subramania, Patrick D. Anderson, Sandia National Labs. Topological photonic structures in analogy to their electronic counterparts can provide new functionalities in nanophotonics through topological protection such as unidirectional scatter-free propagation and extreme photonic density of states PDOS. Photonic systems composed of appropriately designed two-dimensional photonic crystals PhC preserving time-reversal TR symmetry can exhibit pseudo-spin based topological behavior.

We will discuss design, fabrication and optical response of such topological photonic structures in silicon-on-insulator SOI platform. Kivshar, The Australian National Univ. Metamaterials were initially suggested for the realization of negative index media, and later they became a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space and controlling propagation of waves. However, applications of metamaterials in optics are limited due to inherent losses in metals employed for the realization of artificial optical magnetism. Recently, we observe the emergence of a new field of all-dielectric resonant meta-optics aiming at the manipulation of strong optically-induced electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances in dielectric and semiconductor nanostructures with relatively high refractive index [1].

Here, we summarize our most recent advances in all-dielectric Mie-resonant meta-optics including active nanophotonics as well as the recently emerged fields of topological photonics and nonlinear metasurfaces. Kruk and Y. Kivshar, ACS Photonics 4, Metasurfaces allow light manipulation and control, from the point of view of planar optics or polarization control, or non-linear light extraction. Their properties rely on the existence of resonant basic elements which are responsible for strongly confined electromagnetic surface modes.

We aim at using these modes in order to enhance light-matter interaction. We consider a metasurface in which quantum systems are embedded. We study the hybrid excitations between light and matter by using an effective field theory. We investigate the possibility of exciting topological solitons in this system.

Tuesday 13 August Show All Abstracts.

Optics Letters

Lereu , Institut Fresnel France. Shvets, Cornell Univ. Integration of plasmonic metasurfaces and graphene combines the well-known advantages of both: strong field concentration and spectral selectivity of the former with rapid conductivity control of the latter. In this talk, I will describe the state of the art in graphene-integrated metasurfaces. Specific topic of interest that will be discussed in more detail are i rapid polarimetry and polarization shaping, ii imprinting of chemical potential onto graphene using electrically gated patterned metasurfaces, iii detection of mid-infrared radiation using light absorption in graphene placed inside narrow gaps inside plasmonic metasurfaces, and iv imprinting phase and amplitude modulation onto nanosecond laser pulses using graphene modulators.

Liu, Univ. Gartia, Louisiana State Univ. The monolayer is placed on top of an array of silver-covered nanoholes in a polymer and is covered with water. Here we report a large enhancement of up to in the SERS signal of the graphene monolayer on the patterned plasmonic nanostructure for a nm excitation laser wavelength.

Our numerical calculations of both the excitation field and the emission rate enhancements support the experimental results. We also propose a highly compact structure for near total light absorption in a monolayer of graphene in the visible. The structure consists of a grating slab covered with the graphene monolayer. The grating slab is separated from a metallic back reflector by a dielectric spacer. The proposed structure could find applications in the design of efficient nanoscale visible-light photodetectors and modulators. In this work, by integrating passive metamaterials with active graphene devices, we present a new class of electrically controlled active metadevices.

Controlling the charge density on individual element allows us to reconfigure the local dielectric. Here, to tune the electrical resonance of metamaterials, we varied the charge density on graphene layer via ionic gating. The operation frequency of these metamaterials can be easily scaled up to the terahertz and higher frequencies.

Large modulation depth, simple device architecture, and mechanical flexibility are the key attributes of the graphene-enabled active metamaterials. Room temperature stable excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides TMDs offer a unique route for engineering light and matter interactions. This unique feature opens up a new possibility for pushing the thickness limit towards sub-nanometer length scales for optical dielectric waveguides.

To this end, we have demonstrated experimentally that a single guided mode exists in a monolayer WS2 with an exciton-polaritonic origin. This limit for photons resembles a delta function potential supporting a single bound state for electrons. We will talk about how one can experimentally achieve this limit by utilizing Fano resonances arising from second order diffraction in a photonic crystal patterned in TMD materials reaching the sub-nanometer scale. Cox, F. Here we investigate transient modulation in the optical response of nanostructured graphene associated with the absorption of individual plasmons.

We base our analysis on complementary classical and quantum-mechanical simulations, which reveal that the energy of a single plasmon, absorbed in a small, lightly-doped graphene nanoisland, can sufficiently modify the temperature of its electrons and chemical potential to produce substantial changes in the optical response within sub-picosecond timescales, effectively shifting or damping the original plasmon absorption resonance peak and thereby blockading subsequent excitation of a second plasmon.

The thero-optical single-plasmon blockade consist in a viable ultra-low power all-optical switching mechanism for doped graphene nanoislands, while their combination with quantum emitters could yield applications in biological sensing and quantum nano-optics. Shalaev, Purdue Univ. The field of plasmonics has been largely focused on utilizing either conventional materials in the form of thin films, interfaces and nanoparticles, or 2D materials. Transdimensional materials are expected to show extreme sensitivity to external optical and electrical stimuli thus forming an attractive platform for dynamically tunable nanophotonics.

Optics and Lasers in Biomedicine and Culture Contributions to the Fifth International Conference on

Two-dimensional 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides TMDCs are an excellent candidate for realization of a large range of optoelectronic devices on a wide variety of substrates. In this talk, a new approach based on alloying is presented for the formation of lateral heterostructures in 2D TMDCs with unprecedented control over the in-plane device profile and operation wavelength. This approach can be used for post-growth tuning of the optoelectronic properties of the planar structures as well as fabrication of optoelectronic devices such as planar diodes, light emitters, and photodetectors with exotic characteristics.

Details of the material formation and properties as well as device fabrication and characterization in such 2D structures will be presented and discussed. In addition, the potential of this platform for the formation of advanced quantum nanostructures structures such as quantum dots and quantum wires will be discussed.

Hexagonal boron nitride h-BN crystals possess ultrawide electronic bandgap of 5. Nanometer-scale thin films and atomic layers derived from the layered bulk of h-BN crystals have been widely adopted for enabling new two-dimensional 2D devices and systems, thanks to its excellent dielectric, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Lately, h-BN thin layers have also emerged as an attractive material and device platform for nanoscale optics, photonics, and quantum engineering.

In this proceedings paper, we report on some of our studies and initial results toward developing integrated photonic circuitry based on this van der Waals vdW layered crystal. Session 9: Tunable and Dynamic Photonic Platforms.

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Sinclair, Sandia National Labs. All-dielectric metasurfaces have emerged as a promising alternative to the use of lossy metal-based metasurfaces. Semiconductor materials are attractive candidates for use in dielectric metasurfaces since they exhibit large permittivities below their bandgaps and resonators can be exquisitely fabricated using precise epitaxy and powerful semiconductor nanolithographies.

Furthermore, the active properties of semiconductor materials can be used to endow optical metasurfaces with active functionalities. In this presentation, we will describe our efforts to develop semiconductor-based metasurfaces for a wide range of active and passive applications. Babicheva, The Univ. Ince, Univ. Optical antennas made out of van der Waals material with naturally occurring hyperbolic dispersion is a promising alternative to plasmonic and high-refractive-index dielectric structures in the practical realization of nanoscale photonic elements and optical components.

Here we show that antenna made out of hexagonal boron nitride hBN possesses different resonances enabled by the supporting high-k modes and their reflection from the antenna boundaries. Multipole resonances cause the decrease in the reflection from antenna array to zero, which can be ascribed to resonant Kerker effect satisfying generalized zero back-scattering condition for particles in the array.

Transdimensional photonic lattices consisting of resonant hBN antennas in the engineered periodic arrays have great potential to serve as functional elements in ultra-thin optical components and photonic devices. Objects separated by sub-micron distances, c. Although recent years have shown tremendous progress in measuring radiative heat transfer between objects separated by nanogaps, it is of fundamental importance to actively control the net photon flux, with applications in thermal circuitry and nanoscale cooling, among others.

In this talk we will discuss how a near-field thermal switch can be realized, based on the same principle of operation as its electronic counterpart: the metal-oxide semiconductor MOS field-effect capacitor. A new platform for cavity optomechanics, based on suspended GaAs micromechanical resonators structured into near-wavelength photonic crystal slabs and placed within a high-finesse cavity, is discussed. These resonators simultaneously exhibit pleasing mechanical properties, i. These are a promising alternative to other current state-of-the-art methods.

Rolland, A. Nick Vamivakas, Univ. Planar lenses based on metasurfaces i. Dynamically tunable metalenses can be readily implemented by mechanical or electrical control. However, all reported tunable metalenses work in transmission. Based on sectioned meta-atoms, we develop a reflective, mechanically tunable metalens working in the visible. Our design expands the application of flat optics elements across academia and industry such as microscopy and wearable mixed reality electronics. Bondarev , North Carolina Central Univ. United States ; Mikhail Y. Kudyshev, Alexei S. Lagutchev, Alexandra Boltasseva, Vladimir M.

We outline future directions in the development of a platform for high-speed integrated quantum photonics and the application of machine-learning techniques for quantum optical measurements. We will focus on two recent realizations of high-speed photonic components: the brightest room-temperature single-photon source based on an NV center in nanodiamond coupled to a nano-patch antenna and a GHz integrated plasmonic modulator with insertion loss comparable to that of dielectric components.

In addition, we present our new results on the efficient analysis of quantum optical measurements using machine learning-based techniques. Padilla, Kebin Fan, Duke Univ. However, conventional dielectric metasurfaces achieve their properties through geometry, and are consequently static. The usefulness for realistic applications is thus inherently limited. In order to overcome the limitations of static all-dielectric metasurfaces, we utilize optical photodoping in order to achieve precise and ultrafast control. The demonstrated dynamic photonic systems and underlying theory establish a path to realize active metasurface resonances, which may be useful for detection of hazardous materials and frequency-diverse imaging.

The study of light-matter interactions in nanophotonic structures opens a wide range of exciting optical regimes on the nanoscale, allowing one to emit and control single photons, detect vibrational modes of single molecules, and create fundamentally new regimes of quantum optics in lossy materials. However, even at the classical level, modelling and understanding light-matter interactions in many of these open-cavity systems is notoriously difficult and cumbersome, and the proper quantization of light is often done in an ad hoc manner, especially with regards to quantum plasmonics.

This talk will describe some recent developments in the efficient modelling and applications of these systems using dissipative modes, including classical and quantized quasinormal modes, molecular optomechanics in the ultrastrong coupling regime, and the physics and limits of metal based single photon emitters.

Exceptional points EPs are spectral singularities in parameter space of non-Hermitian dynamical systems, where multiple complex eigenvalues and corresponding eigenstates coalesce. Due to their unique mathematical and physical properties, EPs are currently the focus of extensive research spanning multiple fields of physics and engineering.

We consider the influence of EPs on passive, quantum light-matter interactions: the spontaneous emission of a dipole emitter in an optical cavity. Our setup involves a qubit coupled to a two-mode optical cavity, modeled by a Lindblad master equation consisting of a Rabi-like Hamiltonian with one-photon dissipator.

We reproduce previous predictions of four-fold Purcell enhancement in the semiclassical limit of vanishing qubit-cavity coupling, and observe greater enhancements for the general case of non-zero qubit-cavity coupling. Other EP branches not connected to the two-mode cavity EP in the semiclassical limit are also investigated.

Fiber aperture near-field optical microscopy CDP-NSOM Godwit

I review our recent progress on lasing and condensation in plasmonic lattices overlaid with organic gain medium. The lattice geometry is easily tunable in these systems by standard lithography methods, allowing the tailoring of the band structure, band gap, mode energies as well as their losses.

I will demonstrate that the choice of geometry has profound effects on the nonlinear optical response of the system. For instance, the system can be tailored to 1 support both bright and dark modes, 2 lase at the K-point of a hexagonal lattice and 3 support thermalization and condensation of photons in sub-ps timescales []. References [1] T. Hakala et al. Guo et al. Wednesday 14 August Show All Abstracts. United States ; A. Pogrebnyakov, J. Bossard, J. Turpin, The Pennsylvania State Univ.

A silicon-nanoparticle photonic waveguide

United States ; J. Musgraves, Univ. Podraza, The Pennsylvania State Univ. United States ; Kathleen A. Richardson, Univ. Werner, The Pennsylvania State Univ. United States ; C. Rivero-Baleine, Lockheed Martin Corp. This presentation describes a new class of reconfigurable near-IR metasurfaces based on the large changes in optical and electrical properties associated with the transition of chalcogenide alloys between their amorphous and crystalline material phases.

The nanostructures are designed to maximize the contrast ratio between the two material phases by using genetic algorithm optimization linked with an efficient full-wave electromagnetic solver that incorporates the measured material properties. Optical phase change materials O-PCMs exhibit large optical property change when undergoing a solid-state phase transition, thereby offering a highly attractive material platform for active photonics. Traditional O-PCMs exemplified by VO2 and chalcogenide compounds rely on metal insulator transitions to modulate their optical properties, resulting in an inherent coupling between refractive index and absorption changes.

In this talk, we will also discuss a wide variety of novel active photonic devices enabled by the material including nonvolatile waveguide switches with record low-loss and high-contrast performance, free-space light modulators, and bi-stable reconfigurable metasurfaces. Germany ; Dmitry N. In addition, heating of the sample induces a change in both the material phase and dielectric constants of GST, enabling a large detuning from the cavity resonance to switch the SPhP confinement off. Haglund, Vanderbilt Univ. The first paper describing the insulator-to-metal transition IMT in vanadium dioxide, cited more than three thousand times, touched off a continuing search for electronic applications.

Photonic applications are now emerging especially since studies of the photo-induced phase transition PIPT have yielded a microscale understanding of IMT dynamics in VO2 thin films and nanoparticles. It appears that VO2 is a virtually universal phase-changing oxide for photonic applications requiring low energy, high efficiency and ultrahigh speed. Moreover, control of plasmonic and phononic responses can be leveraged in resonant or field-enhancing structures. After sketching the ultrafast dynamics of VO2, I review near and mid-infrared applications of the PIPT to 1 switching in silicon photonics, 2 controlling hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride, 3 constructing plasmonic memory and color arrays, and 4 designing reconfigurable arrays for imaging and sensing.

We discuss some of our recent efforts in designing nanophotonic structures for the purpose of analog optical computing. Examples include image processing, and training of optical neurotrophic networks. We present our latest results on silicon photonics neuromorphic information processing based a. We will discuss different architectures, either based on waveguides or on quasi-chaotic cavities. We will show how these can be used in applications ranging from nonlinear dispersion compensation in optical links to recognition of biological cells.

Additionally, we will touch upon scalability aspects involving e. Also, in order to eliminate electro-optical conversions, we present our progress towards an all-optical readout, which does not require AD conversion or digital computations. Additionally, we will touch upon new machine learning techniques non-linearity inversion to operate these integrated readouts. We will first discuss emerging applications of deep learning on optical microscopy and microscopic image reconstruction, which enable new transformations among different modalities of microscopy, entirely driven by image data.

Next, we introduce a physical mechanism to perform machine learning by demonstrating a Diffractive Deep Neural Network architecture that can all-optically implement various functions following the deep learning-based design of passive layers that work collectively. We created 3D-printed diffractive networks that implement classification of images of handwritten digits and fashion products as well as the function of an imaging lens at terahertz spectrum.

This passive diffractive network can perform, at the speed of light, various functions that computer-based networks can implement, and will find applications in all-optical image analysis and object classification, also enabling new optical components that perform unique tasks using diffractive networks. Phase change photonic devices are becoming popular to enable a host of applications such as on-chip memories to optical neuromorphic computing. One key enabler for such materials is their intrinsic ability to operate in both the electrical and optical domain. However, other than in ultra-high resolution displays, this functionality has not been used widely elsewhere because of inherent limitations of the volume of material that can be switched electrically.

In addition, optical switching in itself is higher power. By using plasmonic enhancement within nanogap devices, we demonstrate how we can carry out measurements in both electrical and optical domain interchangably, while also reducing the power required to switch these devices. Such a structure enhances the prospects of commercialization of such devices. Kuipers, Technische Univ. We directly observe topological edge states in two-dimensional photonic crystals at telecom wavelengths. We reveal that the radiation of the topological states carries a signature of their origin in photonic spin-orbit coupling, linking the unidirectional propagation of two states with opposite pseudospin to circular far-field polarization.

Polarimetric Fourier spectroscopy allows mapping edge state dispersion and loss. We use circular polarization to selectively excite the edge states, and image their low-loss routing along sharp junctions assisted by topological protection. Sorger, The George Washington Univ. Photonic neural networks PNN are a promising alternative to electronic GPUs to perform machine-learning tasks such as deep-learning. Furthermore, photonic integrated circuits PIC offer high data bandwidth at low latency, with competitive footprints and synergies to microelectronics architectures such as foundry access.

This talk discusses recent advances in photonic neuromorphic networks and provides a vision for photonic information processors. Kildishev, Purdue Univ. United States , Chongqing Univ. China ; Di Wang, Purdue Univ. China ; Alexandra Boltasseva, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Zhaxylyk I. Kudyshev, Purdue Univ. The plasmonic color metasurfaces PCMs have attracted increasing interest in the area of optical displays, sensors, cryptography, and high-density data storage. We experimentally demonstrate Polarization-tunable PCMs that significantly expand the number of degrees of freedom for tuning the output colors and encoding more information states in a single nanopixel.

Departing from the Morse-style sequential reading, a set of the plasmonic antennas orientation angles inside each nanopixel is simultaneously mapped onto a unique color code and then translated into a corresponding byte. Such information-multiplexing PCMs hold a great promise for high-density data storage, already exceeding the capacity of conventional Blue-Ray disks. We demonstrate solution-processed IGZO-based photonic neuromorphic devices for brain-inspired computing system.

In particular, we systematically examined the metallic composition ratio-dependent photo-response behaviors of IGZO film and revealed that high indium concentration induced high photo-induced current and large PPC behavior.

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