Led by conservative thinkers such as Milton Friedman, the field has been characterized by studies that tend to support governmental retreat from the delivery of social services and programs.
Manual Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education
The single exception to this rule has been economists identified with a human-capital conceptual framework who have adapted neoclassical theory to derive mathematical models for assessing the returns from education. While sometimes skirting the larger issue of how higher education should be funded, human-capital researchers have produced numerous studies of higher education that link it to greater earning power.
Among noneconomists, however, a deep skepticism endures about whether it is possible to quantify the contribution of higher education. Some of this skepticism is connected to larger questions about the limits of measurement in the social sciences in general, but more often it centers on the failure of human capital researchers to move beyond the question of individual earning power in placing a value on higher education. A retired University of Illinois economist of education, McMahon has moved well beyond the conventional human-capital perspective to offer a comprehensive assessment of both market and nonmarket returns traceable to higher education.
In so doing, he sheds light on how grossly both policy makers and the general public have undervalued higher education and how great a risk our society runs by chronically underinvesting in it.
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He argues that the risks are especially high for globalizing, knowledge-based democratic societies like the United States. McMahon begins his book with two chapters that establish a context for what is to come. Privatization also entails shifting the cost of higher education to hard-pressed parents and students.
Finally, given that his book is meant for general readers, he also briefly outlines some basic economic concepts that he employs and in some cases extends in the ensuing chapters. Chapter 3 begins with a straightforward review of the evidence deriving from conventional human-capital research, which has consistently demonstrated that college graduates earn significantly more than high school graduates throughout their careers.
Increments associated with a college degree have only widened since Expanding the assessment approach in chapter 4, McMahon tackles the issue of the nonmarket benefits to individuals associated with a college degree. He reviews studies that examine benefits ranging from smoking cessation to cognitive development, from family size to perceived happiness.
As for benefits to the larger society, McMahon summarizes the extant evidence, examining the relationship between higher education and economic growth. Even after controlling for other possible determinants, like technology, McMahon affirms that there is a robust positive relationship between higher education and gross national product. In chapter 5, he analyzes the relationship between higher education and social outcomes like democratization, political stability, crime rates, and pollution levels. Like others, I am sure, I cringed at assigning precise numerical values to many of these benefit categories, especially democracy what would John Dewey say!
Clearly higher education has been grossly undervalued using the limited estimation framework of the past. Patricia Simpson is associate professor of employment relations at Loyola University Chicago. Her e-mail address is psimpso luc. We welcome your comments. If students leave university with large debts, this has negative consequences. But, if we finance university education through a graduate tax paid when graduates get a decent income then it may be less of a disincentive.
In the election, the Labour party proposed to abolition tuition fees. In my perceptive the government must allow free education system for two category only. One is the children comes merited and secondly for lower class people. Just give everyone a free college degree. No debts, no tax dollars to send Timmy off for free 4 years of living. Opportunity cost. If we spend billions on free university education there is an opportunity cost of higher taxes or less spending elsewhere.
Arguably, there is a greater social benefit from providing vocational training — e. There is often a real shortage of these skills in an economy. These skill shortages are prominent in industries like building, health care, plumbing, social care and construction.
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Generally, the problem is not a shortage of graduates with art degrees, but lower level vocational skills. See: BBC — skills shortage in the UK Therefore, there is a case for charging students to study at university — allowing higher public spending to tackle more basic skill shortages. Do we have too many graduates? In recent decades there has been a rapid rise in the number of graduates.
Higher quality of education.
The rapid rise in university numbers means that greater pressure is being put on university resources. Since the government is struggling to increase real spending, there is a danger that university education and research may suffer, causing UK education to lag behind other countries. If universities can charge students, it will help maintain standards, quality of teaching and the reputation of UK universities. Makes people value education more. If people have to pay to go to university, you could argue that they would value the education more.
If higher education is free, it may encourage students to take an easy three years of relaxation. Signalling function of higher education. Arguably, higher education acts as a signal to employers that graduates have greater capacity. As a consequence, people who gain a degree, end up with a relatively higher salary.
Therefore, if they financially gain from studying at university, it is perhaps fair they pay part of the cost. This is especially important for middle-class families, who send a higher proportion of people to higher education. I agree that education improves how productive people are in the workforce. A friend of mine is majoring in computer science and they are much more adept because of what they are learning. If governments cannot offer compensation for education then I hope that companies will.
Great post and interesting argument here. I have to say that with everything there is going to be advantages and disadvantages. If you offer free university education, it will devalue those who already have a university education. I think if there is a plan to offer free university education, then there needs to be guidelines around it — such as certain state schools, specific courses, etc.
Your article is so nice and meaningful for readers.
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- Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education?
I like this very much. I think the university fees should not be free. Maybe exceptions can be made for students from more poor backgrounds and they pay lesser fees but it should not be free because then there is no point. I totally agree when you said that it would be hard for low-income parents to send their children to universities. This is the actual problem of my cousin which is why he is lucky that his dad is a military because there might be assistance for them.
Walter W. McMahon
I will suggest this to them since they might not be aware, and he will be going to college in two years time. Your email address will not be published. Leave this field empty. Skip to content. Summary Education has positive benefits for the rest of society. Should the government fund Higher Education? More details In recent years, the UK government has sought to increase the amount students pay for studying at university.
Arguments for free university education Positive externalities of higher education.