Kristiansen, Kristian and Thomas Larsson. Larsen, Mogens Trolle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. Leong, S. Singapore: Singapore Universtity Press. Lieberman, Victor. MacDowall, David W. Malleret, F. Manguin, Pierre-Yves. Fondon: Routledge, pp. Modelski, George and W. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. Naizatul, A. Kuala Lumpur: Department of National Heritage, pp. Early Civilizations of Southeast Asia. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
Economy of Asia
Possehl, G. Ancient Cities of the Indus. New Delhi: Vikas. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Ratnagar, Shereen. Saidin, M. Kuala Fumpur: Department of National Heritage, pp. Pulau Pinang: Universiti Sains Malaysia. Sarabia, Daniel. Sheratt, Andrew. Stark, Miriam and Jane Allen. Stark, Miriam et al. Tibbetts, G. Van Leur, Jacob.
Indonesian Trade and Society. The Hague: W. Wallerstein, I. The Modern World-System Vols 1—3. New York: Academic Press. World-Systems: A Critique. Wallerstein, Immanuel. Those pressures are sparking internal forces to trigger evolutionary adjustments in the political system or even revolutionary upheavals, peaceful or not.
For example, regional economic integration, such as that taking place in ASEAN, demands that regional economic arrangements be increasingly rules-based and that the formulation and application of laws and rules affecting those arrangements be harmonized to some extent and, therefore, more transparent.
Impartial adjudicating mechanisms are increasingly necessary, at both the regional and national levels. The drive for investments, on the part of ASEAN and of each individual member, reinforces these demands. Political diversity is inevitable, necessary, even desirable. But in the light of globalization and regional economic integration, in the face of global competition for markets and investments, some political convergence will have to take place, within Southeast Asia and elsewhere, and it will likely be in the direction of greater openness, greater freedom, and greater pluralism.
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It will proceed at different paces, and political diversity will remain. But the direction is emerging into view.
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Convergence in Culture. Globalization and the technological revolution will also have a significant impact on the diversity and convergence of cultures. We can take culture in its two meanings. Culture by this definition has to be preserved, nurtured and enriched. It links people to the origins of who and what they are.
DIVERSITY AND CONVERGENCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (28 August 2000)
It is what binds them together. It gives them their identity beyond the family. It is the source of their sense of self-worth. It imparts meaning to their lives. Culture has another meaning. In this sense, cultures have to adjust in order for people and nations and regions to be competitive in the global economy. If science and technology, especially information and communications technology and biotechnology, are the arena and weapons for global competition, nations and companies have to undertake a massive re-allocation of resources to education, training, research and development, and the infrastructure for the knowledge industries.
National and corporate priorities have to be reset. Legal assumptions and institutional arrangements have to be re-examined. They have to acquire a scientific bent, develop a certain rigor in their thinking, and cultivate the capacity and inclination to turn knowledge into practical applications. People have to develop the willingness to question knowledge that is handed down and challenge intellectual authority — and be allowed to do so. Personal relationships have to be tempered by the objective application of law and rules in the conduct of government and business.
In sum, the proverbial paradigm shift must take place. In Southeast Asia, there are signs that the financial crisis has jolted governments, institutions and people into the beginnings of such a shift. Not least, if it is increasingly true that these days most nations can compete effectively only through integrated regional economies, then people have to cultivate rapidly a sense of regional identity. This is necessary if people and nations are to identify their welfare with the regional interest, and if they are willingly to subordinate traditional national prerogatives to regional arrangements.
They have to see regional integration and regional cooperation as benefiting them. For most people, this requires a whole new mindset that, in Southeast Asia at least, has not yet been achieved. People and nations are, to a large extent, prisoners of their history, traditions and culture. Not only that; cultural, political and individual diversity is essential and something to be cherished. But in the economy, in politics and in culture, the forces of globalization and technology are impelling a certain convergence globally, regionally and nationally.
In many important ways economies, political systems, and cultural traits must change in response to the challenges of globalization and technology, inevitably converging at many points. The person, the nation, the region that maintains the right balance between diversity and convergence — which, necessarily, must keep shifting — will be the one that finds success in a globally competitive world.
How does this tension play out in Southeast Asia? Convergence Through Geography Convergence through geography, through the occupation of a specific geographic area, seems to be an obvious reality. Southeast Asia has fulfilled the destiny set for it by geography. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube.
The Southeast Asian Connection in the First Eurasian World Economy, 200 BCE–CE 500
Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. This paper reviews the directional shifts in human geographical research on Southeast Asia from to the present. It first begins with an overview of the identity of the region as conceived in various cultural traditions, such as the Greek, Arabic and Indian traditions. Since the s, there have also been fewer regional works on Southeast Asia and though there are now many more indigenous geographers within the region, much of their research is based on their own national or provincial areas.
However, this may shift again, given that rapid economic growth has now given the region prominence. Volume 14 , Issue 2. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
The Global Power Balance Shifts Toward Asia – Brink – The Edge of Risk
Victor R. Savage M. National University of Singapore Search for more papers by this author. Lily Kong M.