Peacekeeping in the Middle East as an International Regime (Studies in International Relations)

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In accordance with Article 13 b of the Rome Statute, the Security Council can refer certain situations to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court ICC , if it appears international crimes such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, the crime of aggression have been committed. The UN Charter gives the General Assembly the power to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote the development and codification of international law.

Many subsidiary bodies of the General Assembly consider specific areas of international law and report to the plenary.

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Most legal matters are referred the Sixth Committee, which then reports to the plenary. The General Assembly also considers topics related to the institutional law of the United Nations, such as the adoption of the Staff Regulations and the establishment of the system of internal justice. The International Law Commission promotes the progressive development of international law and its codification.

International Cooperation (2018) - The UN 2: Peacekeeping

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law is a core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law, with universal membership, specializing in commercial law, with a focus on the modernization and harmonization of rules on international business. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down a comprehensive regime of law and order in the world's oceans and seas, establishing rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources.

The Status of Multilaterial Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General online database provides the most detailed information on the status of over major multilateral instruments deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and covers a range of subject matters, such as Human Rights, Disarmament, Commodities, Refugees, the Environment, and the Law of the Sea.

This database reflects the status of these instruments, as Member States sign, ratify, accede to, or lodge declarations, reservations or objections. A new Internal Justice System for the United Nations was introduced in , with the goal of having a system that was independent, professionalized, expedient, transparent and decentralized, with a stronger emphasis on resolving disputes through informal means, before resorting to formal litigation.

Because the United Nations has immunity from local jurisdiction and cannot be sued in a national court, the Organization has set up an internal justice system to resolve staff-management disputes, including those that involve disciplinary action. The historic archives at the Audiovisual Library of International Law provide a unique resource for the teaching, studying and researching significant legal instruments on international law.

The United Nations currently offers Member States technical assistance in connection with a range of legal matters. It needs a foreign policy fitting into its strategy for peaceful rise. Key questions to be answered include: how has the new national identity come into been? Enhanced national strength encourages China to rethink its identity in the international arena.

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The term was accepted by the Chinese leadership Medeiros To that end, China has shown willingness to play a more active role in international affairs, including UN peacekeeping. Being a rising power in the twenty-first century, China has adopted an active UN peacekeeping policy. The activeness is demonstrated not only in its strong support for UN peacekeeping operations and relevant affairs, but also in its evolving doctrine on UN peacekeeping.

China also attaches great importance to peacekeeping personnel training. It has invested heavily in setting up peacekeeping training facilities and uses them, among other things, as institutions for relevant international cooperation. Since s China has been to learn the field of peacekeeping. It often sends delegates to participate in training courses, academic workshops and seminars held in other UN Member States, including those held in Western states such as the United Kingdom, France, Australia, the United States as well as in Nordic countries.

It has also received peacekeeping training assistance from United Kingdom, France, and other states. Both the Chinese police and military peacekeeping training institutions often host international training courses and academic exchange activities. Working together with their international colleagues including those from the United States and Europe, the Chinese special representatives and minister of foreign affairs have made significant contributions to the peace process in South Sudan, Darfur in Sudan, the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC , Mali, Afghanistan, and the Middle East.

On 4 January , one Chinese frigate Yancheng joined the international escort mission for the disposal of Syrian chemical weapons in response to appeals from the UNSC and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Xinhua a. The white paper states that the PLA has diversified its missions to include defending national sovereignty, security, and territorial integrity, supporting national economic and social development, and safeguarding world peace and regional stability.

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It explains that the PLA should assume its due international responsibilities, and play an active role in maintaining world peace, security, and stability State Council Information Office Most significantly, on 28 September , in his statement at the General Debate of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly and remarks at the UN Peacekeeping Summit, Chinese president Xi Jinping a , b announced six important commitments to support the improvement and strengthening of UN peacekeeping:. First, China will join the new UN peacekeeping Capability Readiness System and set up a permanent peacekeeping police squad and build a peacekeeping standby force of troops.

Third, in the coming five years, China will train peacekeepers from other countries, and carry out 10 demining assistance programs which will include training and equipment provision. These six Chinese measures show that China has decided to expand its contribution to UN peacekeeping and relevant international efforts of maintaining peace and security. Although during the UN Summit and afterwards, many other Member States have also made similar promises to support the UN peacekeeping, so far none of them have given support as significant as that of China. As most of the ongoing PKOs are operating in volatile places, increasing contribution of peacekeepers can mean increasing possibilities of fatalities and injuries.

On 1 June , terrorists attacked the barracks of the Chinese peacekeeping security unit located in Gao, Mali with a vehicle bomb, leading to the death of one Chinese peacekeeper and four injuries. A few weeks later, on 10 July, another two Chinese peacekeepers were killed and five more injured in a mortar exchange between the government forces and the rebel army in Juba, South Sudan. Although both accidents have aroused heated discussion among the Chinese public on security of peacekeepers, Beijing has not shown any signs of withdrawing troops from Mali or South Sudan or intention to reduce its contribution of peacekeeping personnel.

By November , PLA has organized a standby peacekeeping force of 19 units with troops. Apparently, a rising China is determined to be an active UN peacekeeper despite increasing fatalities and injuries of Chinese peacekeepers. UN peacekeeping has three core principles—consent, impartiality, and non-use of force—which China believes are fundamental to winning the confidence and support of Member States for peacekeeping operations and ensuring their smooth conduct Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs While insisting that the consent of a host country is a prerequisite to establishing a PKO, Beijing also agrees that sometimes consent cannot be obtained without efforts of the international community.

In recent years, China has become increasingly willing to participate in those efforts. Regarding impartiality, although China maintains this principle should be abided by in peace efforts by the international community, it does not practice the principle in a rigid way. For example, Beijing insists that the internal affairs of any state should not be interfered with by outside forces. Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs China maintains that peaceful settlement of international disputes and non-use of force in international relations is an important principle of the UN Charter and a basic norm of international law Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nevertheless, Beijing does not rule out the necessity of using force under exceptional circumstances.

Since the early s, China had for a long period of time refrained from contributing security troops to PKOs.

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However, this stance has gradually changed in the twenty-first century. In the new millennium, although China still has concerns regarding the use of force, it no longer minds being directly engaged in use of force in UN-commanded PKOs when there is UNSC authorisation and the situation on the ground deems it necessary to use force. Pillar One : Each individual state has a responsibility to protect its population from mass atrocities.

Pillar Two : The international community has a responsibility to assist the state to protect its population. Pillar Three : If the state fails to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and peaceful measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures. But military intervention is the last resort UN The government of a given state bears the primary responsibility for protecting its citizens. The international community can provide assistance, but the protection of the citizens ultimately depends on the government of the state concerned…there must not be any wavering over the principles of respecting state sovereignty and non-interference of internal affairs.

According to one retired Chinese diplomat, the government largely regards R2P as a concept or a good wish, which solely has significance as political morality. One major concern of the supporters of R2P is with the concept of protection of civilians PoC. Chinese peacekeepers in places like Mali and South Sudan are carrying on PoC tasks according to their mission mandates. Any intervention should protect innocent civilians in the country concerned as well as regional peace and stability, rather than specific political factions or armed forces;.

The necessary precondition for the implementation of force must be that all diplomatic and political means of settlement have been exhausted;. The goal of protection should be to prevent or alleviate a humanitarian disaster, rather than the overthrow of a government;. National reconstruction after intervention and protection should be given sustained support;. The UN should establish a monitoring mechanism, and an effective evaluation and accountability system Ruan b. Although the concept of RP has not been officially endorsed by the Chinese Government, it has attracted great international attention.

RP was coined and discussed under the background that a rising China seeks to be an international norm contributor. Liberal peace as a peacebuilding norm has two pillars, one is Western liberal democracy-oriented institution building, and the other liberal market economy.

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Developmental peace advocates political and social stability supported by strong institutions and an economic development-oriented national development strategy. Liberal peace and developmental peace are two peace norms differing widely in their ways and contents. One seems to be a contrast to the other, competing for attention and resources in peacebuilding as well as legitimacy in international norm system. However, a comparison study of the peacebuilding practice in Haiti and Liberia shows that when the two peace norms are promoted at the same time, they can not only co-exist peacefully, but also improve the effect of peacebuilding efforts He b.

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  5. It can show certain degree of flexibility or be creative in practicing the three fundamental principles of peacekeeping and the concept of R2P in order to play a constructive role in UN peacekeeping affairs, especially when the authority of the United Nations Security Council UNSC can be secured or when Beijing considers the specific circumstances to be exceptional. However, when it comes to the bureaucratic or operational level, China is lagging behind many other major powers, including some non-P5 Member States.

    For example, China only ranks number 14 among all the Member States in terms of number of civilian employees in the UN Secretariat He Moreover, there are only 11 Chinese nationals occupying D1 or above level posts in the UN Secretariat, whereas the numbers of the United States, United Kingdom, and France are 50, 24 and 17 respectively He China is also under-represented in all kinds of policy consultation activities initiated by the UN Prodi For example, since , the UN has nominated six important expert panels to review and advise on UN peacekeeping affairs.

    China has only been invited to participate in two of them He Being a rising power as well as an active supporter for UN peacekeeping, China will never be satisfied at being regarded as merely a peacekeeping personnel and budget contributor. Through actively supporting UN peacekeeping, China wishes to share with the rest of the world its material success, but also intellectual achievement accumulated in its peaceful rising, including as they relate governance.

    It should be noted that uniformed personnel, including military observers, and police officers on political missions commanded by the UN Department of Political Affairs are UN peacekeepers too. Interview with a Chinese retired diplomat, Langfang, China, 13 December The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

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    If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Open Access. First Online: 12 October Download chapter PDF. We then study actors and processes in other global regimes including human security, the environment, gender and human rights.

    The evolution of international law and its application among and across states and societies will be studied from a variety of theoretical, conceptual and normative perspectives. Particular emphasis will be placed on the laws of war; humanitarian law; and international criminal justice. Prerequisite: Second-year standing i. Students will learn about the United Nations system, its procedures, the art of diplomacy, and resolution and position paper drafting, while also developing their analytic, research, public speaking, conflict resolution and negotiation skills through weekly UN crises simulations.

    China and UN Peacekeeping – Centre for International Policy Studies

    Prerequisite: Third-year standing i. POLS U. Specifically, the growth of Human Security and Humanitarian Intervention will be explored in light of the U. Next, the emergence of global governance models that include other international institutions and actors will be explored. Finally, the emerging horizons of contemporary assemblages of governance will be explored. It will also address critical political, economic, environmental, feminist, and developing country perspectives on globalization.

    Security now embraces military, environmental, economic, social and political sectors. Securitizing problems such as terrorism, gender, human rights, narcotics trade, organized crime, pandemics, and internet abuse has major consequences for state policies, international relations and international organization. admin