ESD : physics and devices

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Additionally, the time delays are also associated with the CMOS inverter propagation delay times. Along the power bus is a plurality of peripheral circuit books. The peripheral circuits contain pads, ESD networks, and the receiver or transmitter books. The peripheral power bus extends over these circuits in a regular spacing. Hence, we can represent the power bus time constant as a RC ladder network. From the knowledge of the chip size and the number of circuits, the number of pins along the bus can be estimated.

The chip capacitance is proportional to the number of circuits and the capacitance per internal circuit. The estimate of the resistance is a function of the architecture and chip design methodology. Hence, there is an RC time associated with the chip response. On a global level, the substrate time constant is a function of the substrate resistance and the substrate contact density.

Knowing the number of internal gates, we can assume that there is a substrate contact for some proportionality constant for every circuit. This network will form a twodimensional resistance grid. Hence the substrate network will primarily be a time constant associated with a resistance network. The resistance distribution will respond as a resistance—conductance RG transmission line. For the substrate, the capacitance formed between the substrate and the package has a role in the capacitance coupling during a charged device model CDM.

The package can be modeled as a capacitor—inductor lumped parameter. In some package designs, the lead frames and wire bond also serve as a series inductors elements. At high frequencies or packages with high inductance, the package can influence the ESD event waveform and the circuit response. ESD phenomena involves microscopic to macroscopic scales. ESD phenomena involves electrical and thermal transport on the scale of nanometers, circuits and electronics on the scale of micrometers, semiconductor chip designs on the scale of millimeters, and systems on the scale of meters.

The time scales of interest range from picoseconds ps to microseconds ms. Electrical currents of interest range from milliamps mA to tens of amperes A. The voltage range of interest varies from volts V to kilovolts kV. Temperatures vary from room temperature to melting temperatures of thousands of degrees Kelvin. It is the vast ranges of time, space, currents, voltages, and temperature as well as its transition from the microscopic to the macroscopic which makes ESD phenomenon difficult to model, simulate, and quantify.

To comprehend ESD phenomenon and establish validity of analytical developments, it is important to be able to understand what phenomenon is important. By analyzing the physical equations from a time constant approach, equations and understanding can be made both rigorous as well as improve logical clarity. ESD events are represented as circuit equivalent models. The model was intended to represent the interaction of the electrical discharge from a human being, who is charged, with a component or object.

The model assumes that the human being is the initial condition. The charged source then touches a component or object using a finger. The physical contact between the charged human being and the component or object allows for current transfer between the human being and the object. A characteristic time of the HBM is associated with the electrical components used to emulate the human being. This network has a characteristic rise time and decay time. This is a characteristic time of the charged source.

A more accurate understanding of the waveform and time constant is needed to evaluate the circuit response. The RC time constant only addresses the decay time of the waveform, and does not quantify the rise time. A more accurate representation of the HBM event addresses the series inductance. Roozendaal treated the HBM waveform as a lumped RLC network consisting of the source capacitor, a series inductor, and series resistor [69].

The model was intended to represent the interaction of the electrical discharge from a conductive source, which is charged, with a component or object. The charged source then touches a component or object.

Electrostatic discharge

In this model, an arc discharge is assumed to occur between the source and the component or object allowing for current transfer between the charged object and the component or object. A characteristic time of the machine model is associated with the electrical components used to emulate the discharge process. In the MM standard, the circuit component is a pF capacitor with no resistive component.

The simplified expression does not address the waveform observed from test simulators. The MM waveform contains both oscillation and an exponential decay. The oscillatory nature of the MM waveform is a function of the LC time constant. The discharge process is initiated as contact is initiated between the charged device and the discharging means [25,74—76].

The model was intended to represent the interaction, the electrical discharge of a charged cable, discharging to a chip, card or system. To initiate the charging process, a transmission line or cable is dragged on a floor leading to tribo-electric charging.

The model assumes that the cable is charged as the initial condition. The charged cable source then touches a component or object. A characteristic time of the cable model is associated with the electrical components used to emulate the discharge process. In the charged cable model, the cable acts as a capacitor element.

The capacitance used for this model is pF. In early development times, this model was treated as an RC response model, where a very large capacitor represented the cable. In early development, this was a concern for large system cables. System level engineers are required to improve system-level performance while maintaining the quality and reliability. System level standards and system engineers have long known that charged cables can also introduce system-level concerns.


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Charge accumulation on unterminated twisted pair UTP cables occur through both tribo-electric charging and induction charging. In the case of tribo-electrification, in a UTP cable can be dragged along a floor. A positive charge is established on the outside surface of the insulating film. The positive charge on the outside of the cable attracts negative charge in the twisted pair leads across the dielectric region.

When the negative charge is induced near the outside positive charge, positive charge is induced in the electrical conductor at the ends of the cable. As the cable is plugged into a connector, electrical arcing will occur leading to a charging of the unterminated twisted pair note: the twisted pair was neutral to this point. If a cable is introduced into a strong electric field, induction charging will occur. When the electric field is removed the cable remains charged until a discharge event from grounding occurs.

When a charged twisted pair cable connects to an Ethernet port with a lower electrical potential, cable discharge events can occur in LAN systems. In the past, standards e. Additionally, the introduction of Category 5 and Category 6 cables have significantly low leakage across the dielectric. The CDE produces a rectangular pulse whose pulse width is a function of the length of the cable, L. In consumer electronics there are many applications where a human plugs a small cartridge or cassette into a electronic socket.

These are evident in popular electronic games. To verify the electronic safety of such equipment, the cassette itself is assumed as a charged source. This model is equivalent to a machine model type current source with a much lower capacitor component. The model assumes the resistance of an arc discharge and a capacitance of 10 pF.

In this form of ESD testing, a transmission line cable is charged using a voltage source. The characteristic time of the pulse is associated with the length of the cable. The pulse width of a TLP is a function of the length of the transmission line and the propagation velocity of the transmission line. The propagation velocity is can be expressed relative to the speed of light, as a function of the effective permittivity and permeability of the transmission line source. In all configurations, the source is a transmission line whose characteristic time constant is determined by the length of the transmission line cable.

The various TLP configurations influence the system characteristic impedance, the location of the DUT, and the measurement of the transmitted or reflected signals. For this method, the choice of pulse width is determined by the interest to use TLP testing as a equivalent or substitute method to the HBM methodology. The standard practice today, the TLP cable length is chosen as to provide a TLP pulse width of ns with less than 10 ns rise time [83,87]. The interest in VF-TLP testing is driven by the desire to have an understanding semiconductor devices in a time regime similar to the CDM time constant.

The characteristic time of interest is again determined by the propagation characteristics of the transmission line cable source and the length of the transmission line cable. This time regime is well below the thermal diffusion time constant in semiconductor media. The method of the fast time constant limits the acceptable configurations of the VF-TLP system and suitable equipment for measurement.

Capacitance has a role in the capacitive loading effects in networks, timing circuits, as well as charge storage, charge distribution, and displacement current in ESD events. Capacitance loading effects are a concern for receiver networks because it impacts circuit performance objectives. As the application frequency increases, circuit designs desire to lower the ESD input network capacitance loading. For example, in some applications it is desired to maintain a constant reactance, then as the functional frequency increases, the ESD loading capacitance decreases accordingly.

Circuits are designed to respond to the ESD impulse but not to the power-up or functional frequencies, discriminating the response to ESD events instead of functional applications. Capacitance also plays a role in the way in which current distributes through a semiconductor chip power grid. The capacitance per unit distance of the power bus plays a role in how the current distributes within a semiconductor chip. Capacitance plays a role in the impedance or effective impedance of the whole chip. The chip or system impedance e. Hence, the understanding of lumped and distributed capacitance is fundamental in ESD events.

Capacitance is key from the local ESD element, circuits as well as the global capacitance components of a semiconductor chip. It can be observed locally within a semiconductor device, a circuit or globally on a chip level. The role of resistance is critical in the voltage and current distribution within a semiconductor device, circuit, or network.

The understanding of resistance and the resistance distribution plays a more significant role compared to inductance and capacitance issues. Typically, inductance plays an important role in the effect of lead frames and packages on the ESD response, but play a minor role in the understanding of ESD devices and circuit response in semiconductor chip environments.

Capacitance also plays a key role when the RC time of the wiring is of the order of the characteristic time of the event. Hence, the understanding of lumped and distributed resistance systems is fundamental in ESD events. Resistance plays a key role from the local current distribution within a diode structure, a MOSFET structure, off-chip driver circuits, to global current distribution in the metal busses, and the chip substrate. Resistance plays a fundamental role in the operation of an ESD protection circuit. Voltage distribution and on-resistance within an ESD protection structure is critical in order to provide an effective ESD structure.

Additionally, the resistance also plays a role in the Joule heating within the ESD structure. The voltage distribution and on-resistance within the protected circuit is also critical in the understanding of the failure of an ESD network. Resistance also plays a role in the way in which current distributes through a semiconductor chip power grid. The resistance of the power grid also decreases the voltage margin between the ESD current path and the voltage at the protected circuit of interest. These factors can drive the effectiveness of the ESD strategy, and can determine power clamp circuit placement.

Hence, the understanding of lumped and distributed resistance is fundamental in ESD events. Resistance is key from the local ESD element, circuits as well as the global capacitance components of a semiconductor chip. It can be observed locally within a semiconductor device, a circuit, or globally on a chip level.

Inductance has a lesser role compared to resistance and capacitance effects. Inductance primary role occurs in package lead frames, wire bonds, package pins, and the package itself. Package lead frames and wire bonds can influence the inductive coupling between power rails and influence circuit response.

To reduce the on-chip noise, power rails are reconnected at the package lead frame, or pads, or at the package. In this fashion, the package inductance plays a role in the response of peripheral circuits which have disconnected power and ground rails on the chip. Inductance is also playing a more critical role with the introduction of inductors and transmission lines as design elements. Inductors are used in dc-biasing networks, LC tank circuits and are being introduced into ESD networks.

Inductors are being introduced to provide distributed networks isolated for lowering the effective loading of ESD elements. As a result, the understanding of lumped and distributed LC transmission lines in key to understanding the effect of inductance on ESD events. Hence, the understanding of lumped and distributed inductance is fundamental to ESD understanding in packaging and RF applications. A simple rule-of-thumb for analysis was needed for design sizing and estimation.

ESD element. Wire bussing between the signal pad and the nearest ESD power clamp. ESD power clamp. C where! The summation is the sum of all elements in the ESD current loop path Figure 1. This determines the voltage margin to failure. If the voltage margin is negative, the protected network will fail prior to distributing 1 A of current. This simple development is useful as a rule-of-thumb analysis without semiconductor device design tools and circuit simulation. This method will allow a quick understanding of the resistances and turn-on voltages in order to design an effective strategy.

From this method, one can have a sense of the size of the ESD element, the bus widths, and the size of the ESD power clamp. Additionally, in many large chips, knowing the chip impedance, one can determine if an ESD power clamp is necessary. In order to shunt the ESD current efficiently and effectively, the distribution of the current is critical in ESD design. As the current distributes, the effectiveness of the device improving the utilization of the total area of the ESD network or circuit element.

On a circuit and system level, the distribution of the ESD current within the network or system lowers the effective impedance and the voltage condition within the ESD current loop. A key design practice and focus in ESD development is the distribution effects. The ESD events are transient events; the physical time constants of the devices, circuits, and systems are critical in the understanding, modeling, and simulation of the effectiveness of the elements in the system.

In devices, circuits, interconnects, ESD circuits, and even test equipment, the distribution of voltage and current is key to understanding as well as analysis. In ESD phenomenon, voltage drops occur in the metal wiring pattern of single- and multi-finger elements such as diodes and MOSFETs form distributed current distribution. Off-chip driver OCD networks are also sensitive to the current and voltage distribution at these high-current levels. The metal bus of the power rail and the ground rail also has a role in the ESD analysis.

In the case of modeling ESD events in devices, circuits, or chips, the question arises of whether the element or network should be treated as a single lumped element, or a distributed element. The decision of treating an element as a lumped element, or a distributed set of elements e.

When some integer number of the time of flight is larger than the ESD event rise time, then the network should be modeled as a ladder network or distributed network. When some integer number of the time of flight is less than the rise time, the network can be treated as a lumped element. This analysis is valid for understanding of the voltage distribution in packaging, power grids, and substrates where there is a low-loss component. In the case of lossy systems, where resistance has a dominant role, the voltage drops in the system also play a significant role in the modeling as a lumped or distributed system.

One reason for this rule-of-thumb is that ESD structures incorporate forward-bias diode elements on the order of 0. When the voltage drop across the device is greater than 0. In this case, the element should be separated into a resistance-diode ladder network. When 1 A of current is forced through the power bus, the voltage drops will be of the order of 0. At these levels, the input circuit will see a higher voltage on the input node of this magnitude. Hence, the power rail should be segmented into a resistance—conductance RG ladder network, or a resistance—capacitance RC ladder network.

Treating the ESD element as a distributed two-port network, we can treat the input side as the port 1 and the output side as port 2. The solution for the output impedance term z22 s can be solved in the same manner, but reversing the process. All the distributed models discussed in ESD analysis are forms of the ladder network but using either different mathematic techniques or boundary assumptions.

In some ESD networks, the lumped components are used as a plurality of elements to form a multiple lumped-element distributed network. The multiple lumped-element networks take advantage of the transmission line nature of a distributed system. Hence, although they are lumped components, the complete ESD network behaves as a distributed network. Transmission lines T-lines are also formed in RF components as components between the pads and receiver networks.

Typically, these are low-resistance components formed using metal films. Transmission lines are also present in the ESD test systems themselves. TLP systems incorporate transmission lines in the network to initiate and shape the pulse to simulate ESD events.

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On a global chip level, inductance plays a role in the power bus, ground bus, wire bonds, package lead frames, and pins. In the analysis of the current distribution during an ESD event, inductive effects can play a role. The incremental variation also plays a role in the voltage and current response during high-current ESD operation. Note when the term on the RHS is weak, the nature of the system still behaves as a transmission line with loss associated with the resistance and conductance. But when the LC time is small, the system reduces to the equation, which is dispersive in nature.

From an ESD perspective, the RC distributed system, and RG distributed system limits are prevalent in both device and chip level response in most cases.

The parabolic equation is first order in time and second order in space. This is referred to as the voltage diffusion equation [64]. Hence, the characteristic time constant of the system is related to the local RC time of the increment. As a result, we can assume that one of the two solutions is not physical. The solution that decays with distance is the physical solution. This is related to the argument within the error function and the exponential term. From the above solution, the current decreases according to the product of the inverse of time and an exponential function related to the square of the distance.

The magnitude of the exponential term is a function of the ratio of the characteristic time relative to the RC time of the network. In the distributed RC network, the voltage and current distribution is a function of the time, position, and the characteristic resistance and capacitance of the network. Hence, the spatial and temporal distribution of the voltage and current is a function of the characteristic time constant, RC, and the time scale, t.

In the understanding of current and voltage distribution within an ESD device, or the distribution within a chip, the ratio of the characteristic time to the product of the resistance and capacitance e. Typically, inductive effects can be ignored when evaluating the voltage and current distribution on a semiconductor chip. Hence, the understanding of lumped and distributed resistance—capacitor systems is fundamental in ESD events.

The resistance and capacitance can be observed locally within a semiconductor device, a circuit or globally on a chip level. Even in small devices, metal bussing plays a role in the resistance within the device where metal line widths are small. For example, an ESD diode element can be represented as a anode metal bus with a given resistance per unit micron.

Additionally, the diode element can be represented as a capacitor element. On a semiconductor chip level, although the metal bus widths are large, the distances of interest are on the scale of the semiconductor chip, or distance between input nodes, and power pads. In this case, the wide bus resistance per unit length and the capacitance form a resistance— capacitor RC transmission line which can influence the voltage and current distribution during ESD events. As a result, the resistance and the capacitance play a key role from the local response of a single device, to the global response of chip architecture during an ESD event.

The incremental variation plays a role in the voltage and current response during highcurrent ESD operation. As a result, we can assume one of the two solutions is not physical. In the distributed RC network, the voltage and current distribution is a function of the time, position, and the characteristic resistance and capacitance of the network Figure 1.

The understanding of resistance and resistance distribution plays a more significant role compared to inductance and capacitance issues. Typically, inductance plays an important role in the effect of lead frames and packages on the ESD response, but play a minor role in the understanding of ESD devices and circuit response.

ESD: Circuits and Devices

Capacitance plays a role when the RC time of the wiring is of the order of the characteristic time of the event. The incremental variation plays a role in the voltage and current response during highcurrent ESD operation in the resistive network. As the resistance or the conductance increases, the voltage decay along the transmission line increases. Also note that as the resistance and conductance tend to zero, the voltage approaches a constant value and the current tends to zero. ESD metrics and FOM can be established on a system, chip, circuit, and device level to address the macro-level and micro-level effectiveness of the ESD protection methodology and strategy.

On a chip level, there are measures that provide value add meaning in the quantification of the ESD chip strategy for the given chip design in the semiconductor process. Within a semiconductor chip, the power-to-failure is a function of the semiconductor process, the peripheral circuit library, the ESD input protection networks, and the power grids. The variation within a semiconductor chip is a function of the types of circuits, and types of ESD elements used.

The pin-to-pin variation of an identical pin can be associated with semiconductor process variations within a given chip e. The chip mean power-to-failure is the average peak value where the distribution is centered. As stated above, the variation within a semiconductor chip is a function of the types of circuits and types of ESD elements used. The ESD metric can be referenced as the powerto-failure or the variation in the ESD robustness for a given device model e. The importance of this ESD metric is by evaluating the margin of the mean relative to the specification, an understanding of the effectiveness of the ESD design strategy as well as the robustness of the technology can be evaluated.

As the ESD robustness of a process technology improves, the mean chip powerto-failure distribution will increase e. Additionally, when a better ESD network is utilized, the ESD failure distribution will shift relative to the specification e. In the case of the worst-case pin, this may be a function of a given circuit, or can be associated with the standard deviation, and the mean chip power-to-failure. In many cases, the worst-case pin failure may be associated with different peripheral circuits, and are not contained within the Gaussian or normal distribution of pin failures.

In the case that it will track with the semiconductor process or ESD network, improving the mean power-to-failure distribution will lead to an increase in the margin between the worst-case pin and the ESD specification. This is a valuable metric for floor planning a design where the area on the chips are budgeted according to different functional objectives. In this floor planning metric, the amount of area for ESD protection may be budgeted to avoid utilization of excess design space.

In the past, the acceptable ratio ranged from 0. This provides a measure of the protection value add for the amount of capacitance added to the circuit. Hence, an ESD metric that quantifies the loading effect as a percent decrease in the performance is of value to quantify the ESD impact on the circuit performance. With technology scaling, the implications of the ESD loading effect has become more significant. As the circuit is scaled, or the technology is scaled, the understanding of how the circuit performs relative to the specification is critical to evaluate its future performance.

For a given width, W, and length L, a maximum area to minimum area factor can be defined, where the numerator is a maximum function, and the denominator is a minimum function for a geometry factor of MaxfW; Lg MinfW; Lg This FOM can be used to evaluate area utilization and the efficiency of the area utilization of ESD protection. For a given semiconductor device, the power-to-failure can be determined from the Wunsch—Bell model.

Hence, the ratio of the power-to-failure to the maximum power can be compared. This ratio forms a dimensional group relating the power-to-failure to the maximum functional power Pf PMax 1. Different corporations will have individual needs whose ESD metrics may differ according to the business quality model, business reliability objectives, or the state of the ESD strategy at a given time in the business strategy. The first ESD metric measures the ability to maintain a technology or number of technologies above a given ESD specification level.

This is a measure of success at some point in the design release process. The ESD product learning rate can be a powerful metric in understanding the success of ESD semiconductor technology transitions, semiconductor scaling trends and a measure of success of new ESD implementations. For example, this can be measured as a function of dollar or yield loss in time or plotted as a function of the ESD protection level.

These are a measure of the ESD control program, handling procedures, and the margin between the ESD sensitivity of the tooling and handling relative to the ESD product sensitivity. In ESD program management, T. The focus of this program is the management of a facility and corporation in managing its staff, tooling, and establishing corporate objectives. To address the ESD design phase alone, there are also a number of critical steps that need to be taken.

In order to achieve a good ESD design and release strategy, these 12 steps must be taken in order to insure consistent and acceptable ESD protection levels in a business that releases components which are sensitive to ESD []. The following are 12 steps needed to insure an establishment of an ESD strategy: 1. ESD device and circuits strategy. ESD test site methodology. ESD test equipment and testing methodology [,]. ESD device and circuit simulation strategy. ESD design engagement, review, and release process.

ESD qualification process [,]. ESD metrics of devices, circuits, products, technologies, and learning. ESD specifications, targets, and corporate objectives. ESD technology benchmarking, scaling, and continuous learning strategy. The means at which one carries out these ESD 12 steps can strongly influence the success or failure of a successful ESD design and release process. The chapter introduced a very brief history of electrostatics, the ESD field, and key inventions and patents that will be discussed.

This history, topics, and patents will be referred to in the future chapters. The chapter then lays out ESD failure mechanisms on the semiconductor device level, and circuit level, as well as chip level; this forces the reader to start thinking about the nature of failure mechanisms and will be a blueprint for the future discussion. The reader is then exposed to a new way of thinking about ESD.

How the ESD design practice is unique? What are the concepts? As the book unfolds, this blueprint of ESD concepts will be apparent through the examples. The chapter then introduced time concepts weaving together the electromagnetic time constants, thermal time constants, ESD pulse time constants, and those of devices, circuits, and systems; this gets the reader thinking in a time domain and what phenomena is important for a given ESD pulse event.

The chapter then focused on the concept of resistance, capacitance, and inductance, and how things distribute in space and time; this opens the concept of analysis—whether lumped or distributed, and the physical efficiency of the structures, circuits, and systems. Then the question of analysis—how do we simplify the thinking to a simple circuit and current loop? We closed the chapter getting the reader to then reduce the thoughts to simple ESD metrics that will be handy for thinking, quantifying, and analyzing.

Now the reader is prepared with an ESD mindset to read the rest of the text. Once you have mastered the ESD thinking of Chapter 1, the rest is commentary; the reader is now prepared to start sinking into the details, specifics, and examples. In Chapter 2, we take a step backwards, and start getting into the practical details; the semiconductor chip ESD architecture is discussed.

ESD is both an electrical as well as spatial phenomenon, and hence the architecture and synthesis must reflect both issues. The spatial and electrical connectivity is addressed and how this influences the design and synthesis of ESD networks and floor planning of semiconductor chips. Show the time constant hierarchy of the physical time constants on a time axis, for the ESD pulse waveform time constants, MOSFET transit time, bipolar transistor unity current gain cutoff frequency, bipolar transistor unity power gain cutoff frequency, MOSFET circuit gate delay, cross-chip chip interconnect delay time, and package LC time constant.

Derive the ratio of the human body model and machine model peak current. Derive the ratio of the machine model MM and the cassette model peak current. Assuming a pF capacitor for the machine model, and a 10 pF capacitor for the cassette model. Derive a relationship between the total energy for a transmission line pulse TLP and a very fast-transmission line pulse VF-TLP , where assume for the TLP trapezoidal waveform a 10 ns rise and fall time, and a ns pulse width, and for the VF-TLP trapezoidal waveform a 1 ns rise and fall time, with a 5 ns pulse width. Calculate the total capacitance and total energy stored in a charged coaxial cable of unit capacitance C per unit length.

Assume a typical coaxial cable capacitance, and calculate the total capacitance for a 1, 10, and foot cable. Assuming an initial charging of voltage V, calculate the total charge for the different length cables. For the coaxial cables in Problem 5, assume an initial charging of V, and V. Assuming a foot coaxial cable of capacitance C, convert the coaxial cable waveform into a single capacitor element. What is the source capacitance? Given the ladder network in Chapter 1, derive the relationship for the Stieljes continued fraction form for the output impedance term z22 s. Given the ladder network in Chapter 1, derive the relationship for the impedance parameters z12 s and z21 s.

Given an ESD diode in the reverse bias mode, we can assume the top electrode has a high resistance and the lower electrode has zero resistance. We can also represent the reverse biased diode as a capacitor element. Assume a ladder network consisting of N resistors on the top electrode, and N capacitors as the rungs of the ladder network, derive the impedance matrix terms.

Given an ESD diode in a forward bias mode, we can assume the top electrode has a high resistance and the lower electrode has zero resistance.

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We can represent the forward biased diode as a conductance term. Assume a ladder network consisting of N resistors on the top electrode, and N conductance terms for the rungs, derive the impedance matrix terms. Determination of threshold voltage levels of semiconductor diodes and transistors due to pulsed voltages. IEEE Transactions. On Nuclear Science ; NS 6 : — Pulse power failure modes in semiconductors. Vlasov and V. Elektronnaya Technika ; 4: 68— Semiconductor device degradation by high amplitude current pulses. Prediction of thin-film resistor burn-out.

Alexander and E. Predicting lower bounds on failure power distributions of silicon npn transistors. Determining an emitter—base failure threshold density of npn transistors. Pierce and R. A Probabilistic estimator for bounding transistor emitter—base junction transient-induced failures. Semiconductor junction non-linear failure power thresholds: Wunsch—Bell revisited. International Journal of Electronics, ; 55; Transmission line pulsing techniques for circuit modeling of ESD phenomena. Dwyer, A. Franklin and D. Thermal failure in semiconductor devices.

Solid State ; — Diep and T. A field induced charged-device model simulator. Polgreen and A. Voldman, V. Gross, M. Hargrove, J. Never, J. Slinkman, M. Scott and J. Shallow trench isolation double-diode electrostatic discharge circuit and interaction with DRAM circuitry. Voldman and V. Scaling, optimization, and design considerations of electrostatic discharge protection circuits in CMOS technology.

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Voldman, P. Juliano, R. Johnson, N. Schmidt, A. Joseph, S. Furkay, E. Rosenbaum, J. Dunn, D.

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Harame and B. Electrostatic discharge and high current pulse characterization of epitaxial base silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors. ESD Association. ESD SP 5. Gate protection of MIS devices. Over voltage protective device and circuits for insulated gate transistors. Gerosa and S. No patent pursued. Geissler and E. Patent 5,,, May 13, Butler and Partovi. Self-referencing modulation circuit for CMOS integrated circuit electrostatic discharge protection clamps.

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Hung and T. Botula and D. Armer and P. Continuum Electromechanics. Boston: M. Press, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Muller and T. Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Reading Mass: AddisonWesley, Automotive Electronics Council. Human body model electrostatic discharge test. Van Roozendaal, E. Ameresekera, P. Bos, P. Ashby, W. Baelde, F. Bontekoe, P. Kersten, E. Korma, P. Rommers, P. Krys and U. Standard ESD testing of integrated circuits.

Machine model electrostatic discharge test. Charged device model electrostatic discharge test. Intel Corporation. Cable discharge event in local area network environment. White Paper, Order No: , July A simple model for the cable discharge event. Category 6 Consortium. December Deatherage and D. Multiple factors trigger discharge events in Ethernet LANs. Electronic Design ; 48 25 : — Pommeranke, Charged cable event, February 23, Conformity ; 12— Barth, J.


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Richner, K. Verhaege and L. TLP-Calibration, correlation, standards, and new techniques. Barth and J. Keppens, V. Natarajan Iyer and G. Contribution to standardization of transmission line pulse methodology. Voldman, R. Ashton, B. McCaffrey, J. Barth, D. Bennett, M. Hopkins, J. Bernier, M. Chaine, J. Daughton, E. Grund, M. Farris, H. Gieser, L. Henry, H. Hyatt, N. Iyer, P. Juliano, T. Maloney, L. Ting and E. Standardization of the transmission line pulse TLP methodology for electrostatic discharge. Verfahren zur charakterisierung von iintegrierten schaltungen mit sehr schnellen hochstromimpulsen.

Dissertation, Shaker-Verlag, Aachen, Germany, Juliano and E. Accurate wafer-level measurement of ESD protection device turn-on using a modified very fast transmission line pulse system. Draft A, ESD: Physics and Devices. Fundamentals of Microwave Transmission Lines. New York: McGraw-Hill, Ramo, J. Whinnery and T. Van Duzer. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, Basic Network Theory. Nonuniform ESD current distribution due to improper metal routing. Device ESD susceptibility testing and design hardening.

New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, IBM MicroNews ; 6 4 : 21— Gross and S. ESD qualification and testing. Testing and qualification of ESD and latchup in semiconductor chips: keeping pace with advanced technology. IBM MicroNews ; 7 3 : 29— This chapter will briefly address the fundamental of the physical elements in ESD design. In ESD design, there are fundamental elements needed in the chip design synthesis to establish an alternative current loop to prevent the ESD current from causing chip or system damage.

Additionally, the ESD power clamp also establishes electrical connections to both power rails. The inter-relationship and interaction of the physical elements in the system can be dependent on both electrical connectivity and spatial connectivity. The electrical connectivity between a first electrical node and a second electrical node in the system will influence the ESD robustness of a design, chip, or system.

The spatial connectivity between a first spatial point and a second spatial point can also influence the ESD robustness of a semiconductor chip. Depending on the ESD mechanism, the issue of the spatial relationship is not always critical. It is critical to establish a design architecture that allows electrical connectivity between external pins and power rails, and power rails to power rails. To establish good ESD robustness, current must be able to flow from external pins connections to power rails.

Hence, a current path must exists which allows between all physical external node e. A power boundary condition can be stated that states that the flow of current must be able to flow from any node which connects to outside the system to any second node e. A second condition is that current must be able to flow from one power rail to a second power rail.

In order to achieve this, electrical connectivity must exist between a first and second power rail, where the first and second rail do not have to be at the same bias condition. In order to provide ESD protection, a Kirchoff current loop can be established between the first node and the grounded reference power supply.

The input source serves as part of the Kirchoff current loop from the ground, through the source element, the electrical switch, and the input node of the device under test DUT. The Kirchoff current loop continues to the grounded reference and back to the ground plane. In the case of power supply to power supply, the Kirchoff current loop does not contain the input pin but from a first power supply to second power supply. A thermal circuit contains thermal components and thermal nodal points. The thermal network can be associated with a point in the circuit or spatial location.

There are temperature values associated with the thermal nodal points. Through the substrate region, components interact through thermal coupling. In the thermal equivalent circuit, the thermal coupling can be represented as thermal transfer resistance terms and thermal feedback phenomenon. Thermal interaction between adjacent structures can play a role in current and voltage distribution. The primary reason for issues of a spatial nature is ESD phenomena which is interactive through the silicon substrate [1].

Through the substrate, both electrical and thermal physical phenomena exist. From an electrical perspective, there is inductive and capacitive coupling, as well as minority carrier injection phenomena. There are also initial conditions where uniform charge exists in the substrate prior to electrical discharge. For example, in the charge device model CDM test, the substrate is charged across the entire substrate region. The spatial relationship between input pads, peripheral circuits e. When addressing the spatial dependence, the physical time constants of the system are critical in the understanding of the semiconductor circuit response.

These can include the charge relaxation time, the carrier diffusion time, and the circuit time constant response of the network involved in the CDM event. Figure 2. Providing good electrical connectivity between segments of Figure 2. Consequently, providing good noise isolation can lead to poor ESD protection; this does not have to be true. Choosing the right design choices in the synthesis of the design segments, circuit set, and the ESD protection type can allow for achieving both good noise isolation as well as good ESD robustness.

ESD, latchup, and noise are also dependent on the process technology and the substrate region. The choice of the n-well, p-well, triple-well, and substrate doping concentrations have a strong influence on all three issues. Typically, higher well doses can lead to lower parasitic bipolar current gain in parasitic transistor elements. This also reduces the noise injection into the substrate region. In the case of the substrate doping concentration, lower substrate doping concentration improves noise isolation. At the same time, the minority carrier lifetime in the substrate improves, leading to a greater concern of latchup initiation from minority carriers.

Some noise reduction techniques have no influence on ESD robustness or latchup. Some of these design practices may also be good solutions for ESD protection and latchup minimization. Many noise prevention and reduction techniques have been proposed by Verghese, Schmerbeck and Allstot [2,3,6,7,11]. Switching large transient supply currents is a function of whether the circuitry uses balanced current steering logic or voltage switching internal logic families.

Noise reduction can also be achieved by power management. This is achievable by shutting down switching functions, logic circuits, or OCD networks. Placement of the drivers close to the power rail returns reduces the network inductance. Noise reduction techniques can be achieved by isolating sensitive circuits and providing noise-tolerant circuits. Isolation of sensitive circuits can be achieved by maximizing the impedance between the noise source and the sensitive circuits. This can be achieved by spatial separation and semiconductor process choices of the semiconductor substrate.

Noise isolation of the sensitive circuit can also be achieved using guard rings, isolation structures, substrate contact, and shielding films or regions [3]. Many of these solutions for noise reduction are also good solutions for ESD protection and latchup in semiconductor components. The electrical, thermal, and spatial connectivity can influence the latchup robustness of a semiconductor chip. Latchup can be both a local as well as global phenomena in a semiconductor chip [36,40—42]. The electrical connectivity of pads, circuits, and circuit functional blocks can influence the latchup robustness of a semiconductor chip.

The placement of pads, circuits, circuit function, power rails, and the architecture of the semiconductor chip or system can also play a key role in the latchup sensitivity. As with noise, the relative placement of injection sources, and latchup-sensitive circuits is key to latchup robustness [36,39,40]. Analogous to the noise issue, semiconductor process choices and semiconductor layout design influences latchup sensitivity. Substrate contacts, isolation structures, and the relative placement of circuits influence the spatial and electrical coupling which occurs in the semiconductor chip.

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